New joint paper on radical organic emitters with Sebastian Gorgon and his colleagues from the University of Cambridge, UK and other colleagues from China, UK, Belgium, Spain and our group in Würzburg:
Reversible spin-optical interface in luminescent organic radicals
S. Gorgon, K. Lv, J. Grüne, B. H. Drummond, W. K. Myers, G. Londi, G. Ricci, D. Valverde, C. Tonnelé, P. Murto, A. S. Romanov, D. Casanova, V. Dyakonov, A. Sperlich, D. Beljonne, Y. Olivier, F. Li, R. H. Friend & E. W. Evans
Nature 620, 538–544 (2023). [DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06222-1]
See also a press release here
New joint paper on Triplet-Triplet Annihilation in NFA-based organic solar cells with Alex Gillett group (University of Cambridge, UK) and other colleagues from Munich, China and Sweden:
Understanding the Role of Triplet-Triplet Annihilation in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Organic Solar Cells
L. J. F. Hart, J. Grüne, W. Liu, Tsz-ki Lau, J. Luke, Yi-Chun Chin, X. Jiang, H. Zhang, D. J.C. Sowood, D. M. L. Unson, Ji-Seon Kim, X. Lu, Y. Zou, F. Gao, A. Sperlich, V. Dyakonov, J. Yuan and A. J. Gillett
Adv. Energy Mater. (2023). [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202301357]
Congratulations to Mathias Fischer, who successfully defended his PhD thesis "Transient Phenomena and Ionic Kinetics in Hybrid Metal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells". It was an excellent opportunity to meet our alumni (thanks for coming!) and celebrate at Killiani.
New joint paper on Na, Fe lead-free perovskites with Bein & Nickel Groups (LMU) within DFG SPP2196:
Low Temperature Optical Properties of Novel Lead-Free Cs2NaFeCl6 Perovskite Single Crystals
M. Armer, P. Dörflinger, A. Weis, C. Büchner, A. Gottscholl, J. Höcker, K. Frank, L. Nusser, M. T. Sirtl, B. Nickel, Th. Bein, and V. Dyakonov
Adv. Photonics. Res. (2023). [DOI: 10.1002/adpr.202300017]
Congratulations to Patrick Dörflinger, who was awarded the Park System Outstanding Poster Award for his poster "Steady-state microwave conductivity (SSMC) on ionic liquid doped lead halide perovskites" at the DPG Spring Meeting in Dresden!
Congratulations to Dr. Andreas Gottscholl, who was awarded the Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen - Science Prize and the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Dissertation Prize for his outstanding doctoral thesis! The award was handed over to the Gottscholl family during the Academic Ceremony of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy on 12.12.2022 in the Neubaukirche. Andreas was in the USA at that time and thanked with the message.
New joint paper on Sn-alloyed lead-free perovskites with Bein (LMU), Hofmann (TU Darmstadt) and De Angelis (Perugia) groups within DFG SPP2196:
Heterovalent tin alloying in layered MA3Sb2I9 thin films: assessing the origin of enhanced absorption and self-stabilizing charge states
A. Weis, P. Ganswindt, W. Kaiser, H. Illner, C. Maheu, N. Glück, P. Dörflinger, M. Armer, V. Dyakonov, J. P. Hofmann, E. Mosconi, F. De Angelis, and Th. Bein
J. Phys. Chem. C (2022). [DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c06106]
Congratulations to Jeannine Grüne, who successfully defended her PhD thesis "Spin States and Efficiency-Limiting Pathways in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices" on 16.11.2022
ERC Advanced Grant proposal entitled "Quantum sensing with van der Waals heterostructures based on hexagonal boron nitride" (BoNi-SENS) is selected for funding. It is based on the first observation of spin defects (color centres) in boron nitride by Dyakonov and Aharonovich teams in 2020 and a series of papers thereafter.
DFG approved two research proposals within the SPP2196 Programme "Perovskite Semiconductors: From fundamental properties to devices". The purpose of these projects is to realize a stable perovskite solar cells, as well as to study coherent exciton dynamics in lead-free double perovskites of various dimensionality, respectively. Project partners are Profs. Z. Fei, M. K. Nazeeruddin (both EPFL) and I. Akimov (TU Dortmund). The complete list of projects approved in SPP2196–Phase II can be found on the coordinator's homepage (here).
Free State of Bavaria approved the bilateral project "IQ-Sense - Integrated Spin Systems for Quantum Sensors" under the initiative "Lighthouse projects in the field of quantum sciences and quantum technologies". IQ-Sense will develop and transfer integrated quantum sensing technologies into biomedical applications to boost detection sensitivity and to develop entirely novel sensing possibilities in this challenging environment. Project partners are Julian-Maximilian University of Würzburg (JMU) and the Technical University of Munich (TUM). From JMU, groups from the Institute of Physics, the Biocentre and the Rudolf-Virchow-Zentrum (RVZ) für Integrative und Translationale Bildgebung are involved. JMU press release (German). Press release of the Bavarian Ministry of Science (German).
New joint paper with colleagues from TU Dortmund on spin physics of lead halide perovskites within DFG SPP2196:
The Landé factors of electrons and holes in lead halide perovskites: universal dependence on the band gap
E. Kirstein, D. R. Yakovlev, M. M. Glazov, E. A. Zhukov, D. Kudlacik, I. V. Kalitukha, V. F. Sapega, G. S. Dimitriev, M. A. Semina, M. O. Nestoklon, E. L. Ivchenko, N. E. Kopteva, D. N. Dirin, O. Nazarenko, M. V. Kovalenko, A. Baumann, J. Höcker, V. Dyakonov and M. Bayer
Nature Commun. (2022). [DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-30701-0]
Congratulations to Hex & Co. on the new joint publication within the DFG project (DY18/13-1) on stimulated emission from SiC colour centres, based on the results of four master projects
Superradiance of spin defects in Silicon Carbide for MASER applications
A. Gottscholl, M. Wagenhöfer, M. Klimmer, S. Scherbel, C. Kasper, V. Baianov, G. V. Astakhov, V. Dyakonov, and A. Sperlich
Frontiers in Photonics (2022).[DOI: 10.3389/fphot.2022.886354]
Congratulations to Andreas Gottscholl, who successfully defended his PhD thesis "Optical Accessible Spin Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride: Identification, Control and Application of the Negatively Charged Boron Vacancy VB– " on 04.05.2022
Congratulations to Melina, Patrick and Valentin on the new joint publication with colleagues from EPFL (and several others) within DFG SPP2196 - SNF project on stability of perovskite solar cells and modules
Single-crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles for stable and efficient perovskite modules
Y. Ding, B. Ding, H. Kanda, O. J. Usiobo, T. Gallet, Zh. Yang, Y. Liu, H. Huang, J. Sheng, Ch. Liu, Y. Yang, V. I. E. Queloz, X. Zhang, J.-N. Audinot, A. Redinger, W. Dang, E. Mosconic, W. Luo, F. De Angelis, M. Wang, P. Dörflinger, M. Armer, V. Schmid, R. Wang, K. G. Brooks, J. Wu, V. Dyakonov, G. Yang, S. Dai, P. J. Dyson & M. K. Nazeeruddin
Nature Nanotechnol.(2022). [DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01108-1]
New joint publication with colleagues from TU Dortmund within DFG SPP2196 on spin physics of perovskites
Spin Dynamics of Electrons and Holes Interacting with Nuclei in MAPbI3 Perovskite Single Crystals
E. Kirstein, D.R. Yakovlev, E.A. Zhukov, J. Höcker, V. Dyakonov, and M. Bayer
ACS Photonics 9, 1375−1384 (2022). [DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.2c00096]
Interview with Dr Hannes Kraus, our former diploma and doctoral student and post-doc. Uni Würzburg press release (German)
Two new publications on physics of spin defects in hBN with colleagues from Universities of Paderborn, Kazan and Sydney.
Electron–Nuclear Coherent Coupling and Nuclear Spin Readout through Optically Polarized VB– Spin States in hBN
F.F. Murzakhanov, G.V. Mamin, S.B. Orlinskii, U. Gerstmann, W.G. Schmidt, T. Biktagirov, I. Aharonovich, A. Gottscholl, A. Sperlich, V. Dyakonov, and V.A. Soltamov
Nano Letters (2022). [DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c04610]
Spin Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride for Strain Sensing on Nanopillar Arrays
T. Yang, N. Mendelson, C. Li, A. Gottscholl, J. Scott, M. Kianinia, V. Dyakonov, M. Toth, and I. Aharonovich
Nanoscale (2022). [DOI: 10.1039/D1NR07919K]
New joint paper with colleagues from Oxford, Santa Barbara and Cambridge on triplet recombination channels in organic solar cells
Geminate and Nongeminate Pathways for Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic Solar Cells
A. Privitera, J. Grüne, A. Karki, W. K. Myers, V. Dyakonov, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. K. Riede, R. H. Friend, A. Sperlich, and A. J. Gillett
Adv. Energy Mater. 2103994 (2022). [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202103944]
New joint paper with colleagues from 15 different groups worldwide on THz and microwave (TRMC) conductivity on perovskite films with strong predictive force for solar cells
Predicting Solar Cell Performance from Terahertz and Microwave Spectroscopy
H. Hempel, T. J. Savenjie, M. Stolterfoht, J. Neu, M. Failla, V. C. Paingad, P. Kužel, E. J. Heilweil, J. A. Spies, M. Schleuning, J. Zhao, D. Friedrich, K. Schwarzburg, L. D.A. Siebbeles, P. Dörflinger, V. Dyakonov, R. Katoh, M. J. Hong, J. G. Labram, M. Monti, E. Butler-Caddle, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. M. Taheri, J. B. Baxter, T. J. Magnanelli, S. Luo, J. M. Cardon, S. Ardo, Th. Unold
Adv. Energy Mater. 2102776 (2022). [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202102776]
Congratulations to Julian Höcker, who successfully defended his PhD thesis "High-quality organolead trihalide perovskite crystals: Growth, characterisation and photovoltaic applications" on 22.02.2022
New joint paper with colleagues from TU Dortmund on photophysics of perovskite singe crystals:
Photon echo polarimetry of excitons and biexcitons in a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite single crystal
A. V. Trifonov, S. Grisard, A. N. Kosarev, I. A. Akimov, D. R. Yakovlev, J. Höcker, V. Dyakonov, and M. Bayer
ACS Photonics (2022) [DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.1c01603]
Congratulations to Sebastian Weißenseel, who successfully defended his PhD thesis "Spin-Spin Interactions and their Impact on Organic Light-Emitting Devices" on 19.01.2022
New joint paper with Bein (LMU), Tress (ZHAW), Mayer (TUD) and Janssen (TUe) groups:
2D/3D Hybrid Cs2AgBiBr6 Double Perovskite Solar Cells: Improved Energy Level Alignment for Higher Contact-Selectivity and Large Open Circuit Voltage
M. Sirtl, R. Hooijer, M. Armer, F. G. Ebadi, M. Mohammadi, C. Maheu, A. Weis, B. T. van Gorkom, S. Häringer, R. A. J. Janssen, Th. Mayer, V. Dyakonov, W. Tress and Th. Bein
Adv. Ener. Mater. 12, 2103215 (2022) [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202103215]
Long-lived spin-polarized intermolecular exciplex states in thermally activated delayed fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes
S. Weissenseel, A. Gottscholl, R. Bönnighausen, V. Dyakonov, A. Sperlich
Sci. Adv. 7 (47), eabj9961 (2021) [DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj9961]
Congratulations to Julian Höcker, Group "Photovoltaic Materials and Devices", the winner of the Best ePoster prize from Solar RRL for his Paper „The polymer polyTPD as hole transport layer for efficient solution processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells" presented at the conference "Organic Materials in Perovskite-based Optoelectronic Devices 2021“ (OrgMatPerPV) on 29.-30.04.2021.
Congratulations to Christian Kasper, who successfully defended his PhD thesis: "Engineering of Highly Coherent Silicon Vacancy Defects in Silicon Carbide“
New joint paper with Aharonovich group at UTS and Bradac group at Trent University
Room Temperature Coherent Control of Spin Defects in hexagonal Boron Nitride
A. Gottscholl, M. Diez, V. Soltamov, C. Kasper, A. Sperlich, M. Kianinia, C. Bradac, I. Aharonovich, V. Dyakonov
Science Advances (2021) [DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abf3630]
New joint paper with Aharonovich group at UTS and colleagues at the Universities of Berkeley, Nottingham, Canberra, Trent, Shanghai
Identifying carbon as the source of visible single-photon emission from hexagonal boron nitride
Noah Mendelson, Dipankar Chugh, Jeffrey R. Reimers, Tin S. Cheng, Andreas Gottscholl, Hu Long, Christopher J. Mellor, Alex Zettl, Vladimir Dyakonov, Peter H. Beton, Sergei V. Novikov, Chennupati Jagadish, Hark Hoe Tan, Michael J. Ford, Milos Toth, Carlo Bradac, Igor Aharonovich
Nature Materials (2020) [DOI: 10.1038/s41563-020-00850-y]
Congratulation to Dr. Andreas Sperlich (Hex), who was awarded with the Habilitation degree in Experimental Physics for his work “On the Role of Spin States in Molecular Donor:Acceptor Organic Solar Cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes” after giving the public lecture entitled „2D Materialien jenseits von Graphen“. Habilitation is the highest post-doctoral qualification degree issued by German universities and is the key for access to a professorship.
New joint paper with Aharonovich group at UTS
Room Temperature Initialisation and Readout of Intrinsic Spin Defects in a Van der Waals Crystal
A. Gottscholl, M. Kianinia, V. Soltamov, C. Bradac, C. Kasper, K. Krambrock, A. Sperlich, M. Toth, I. Aharonovich, V. Dyakonov
Nature Materials, 2020 [DOI: 10.1038/s41563-020-0619-6]
See also Uni Würzburg press release (in German)
Congratulations to Katrin Anneser, who successfully defended her phd thesis: „ Elektrochemische Doppelschichtkondensatoren zur Stabilisierung fluktuierender photovoltaischer Leistung“
to Liudmila Kudriashova, who successfully defend her PhD thesis
„ Photoluminescence Reveals Charge Carrier Recombination in Organic and Hybrid Semiconductors“
New joint paper with EPFL and university of Augsburg
Getting the Right Twist: Influence of Donor–Acceptor Dihedral Angle on Exciton Kinetics and Singlet–Triplet Gap in Deep Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter
S. Weissenseel, N. A. Drigo, L. G. Kudriashova, M. Schmid, T. Morgenstern, K.H. Lin, A. Prlj, C. Corminboeuf, A. Sperlich, W. Brütting, M. K. Nazeeruddin, V. Dyakonov
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2019 [DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b08269]
DFG approved two research proposals within the DFG SPP 2196 Programme „Perovskite Semiconductors: From fundamental properties to devices“. The purpose of these projects is to realize lead-free and stable perovskite solar cells, respectively. Project partners are Profs. T. Bein (LMU), K. Reuter (TUM), M. K. Nazeeruddin (EPFL) and Cristina Roldán Carmona (EPFL).
to Michael Auth, who successfully defend his PhD thesis
„Quantitative Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Charge Transfer in Organic Semiconductors“
Excitation and coherent control of spin qudit modes in silicon carbide at room temperature
V. A. Soltamov, C. Kasper, A. V. Poshakinskiy, A. N. Anisimov, E. N. Mokhov, A. Sperlich, S. A. Tarasenko, P. G. Baranov, G. V. Astakhov, V. Dyakonov
Nature Communications 10, 1678 (2019) [DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09429-x]
Minimizing geminate recombination losses in small-molecule-based organic solar cells
R. Sandoval-Torrientes, A. Gavrik, A. Isakova, A. Abudulimu, J. Calbo,d Juan Aragó, J. Santos, E. Ortí, N. Martín,V. Dyakonov L. Lüer
J. Mater. Chem. C, 2019, [DOI: 10.1039/C9TC00862D]
Favorable Mixing Thermodynamics in Ternary Polymer Blends for Realizing High Efficiency Plastic Solar Cells
N. Gasparini, S. Kahmann, M. Salvador, J. D. Perea, A. Sperlich, A. Baumann, N. Li, S. Rechberger, E. Spiecker, V. Dyakonov, G. Portale, M. A. Loi, C. J. Brabec, and Tayebeh Ameri
Adv. Energy Mater. 2019, 1803394 [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201803394]
Near‐infrared quadrupolar chromophores combining three‐coordinate boron‐based superdonor and ‐acceptor units
T. Stennett, P. Bissinger, S. Griesbeck, S. Ullrich, I. Krummenacher, M. Auth, A. Sperlich, M. Stolte, K. Radacki, C.-J. Yao, F. Würthner, A. Steffen, T. Marder, H. Braunschweig
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, [DOI: 10.1002/anie.201900889]
Doping Profile in Planar Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells Identifying Mobile Ions
M. Fischer, K. Tvingstedt, A. Baumann, and V. Dyakonov
ACS Applied Energy Materials Article (2018) [DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b08716]
Photophysics of Deep Blue Acridane- and Benzonitrile-Based Emitter Employing Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence
N. A. Drigo, L. G. Kudriashova, S. Weissenseel, A. Sperlich, A. J. Huckaba, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and V. Dyakonov,
J. Phys. Chem. C (2018) [DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b08716]
to David Kiermasch and the Photovoltaic Group, winners of the Outstanding Poster Award of the Chemical and Polymer Physics (CPP) Division of the German Physical Society (DPG).
The prize sponsored by Park Systems Europe GmbH was awarded in the Annual General Meeting of the CPP Division on 15.03.2018 in Berlin.
The work entitled “Charge carrier recombination in planar n-i-p and p-i-n perovskite solar cells - the role of interfaces” is a collaboration of the Julius Maximilian University Würzburg, Instituto de Ciencia Molecular of University of Valencia in Spain and Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern). The work presented at the DPG Spring Meeting Berlin 2018 addressed charge carrier recombination dynamics in vacuum deposited planar n-i-p and p-i-n perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 20 % and 17 %, respectively. David and coauthors explained the differences between both types of devices by studying charge carrier recombination dynamics with steady state and transient electrical measurements and attributed them to different recombination rates. The work at ZAE Bayern and University of Würzburg were carried out within the project titled “Potential of Perovskite Photovoltaics: Investigation of relevant physical parameters, material properties and efficiency limiting factors in hybrid perovskite solar cells” (HYPER) funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under 03SF0514A and 03SF0514B.
Revisiting lifetimes from transient electrical characterization of thin film solar cells; a capacitive concern evaluated for silicon, organic and perovskite devices
D. Kiermasch, A. Baumann, M. Fischer, V. Dyakonov, K. Tvingstedt
Energy Environ. Sci., 2018,11, 629-640 (2018) [DOI: 10.1039/C7EE03155F]
Understanding the Role of Cesium and Rubidium Additives in Perovskite Solar Cells: Trap States, Charge Transport and Recombination
Y. Hu, E. M. Hutter, P. Rieder, I. Grill, J. Hanisch, M. F. Aygüler, A. G. Hufnagel, M. Handloser, E. Ahlswede, Th. Bein, A. Hartschuh, K. Tvingstedt, V. Dyakonov, A. Baumann, T. J. Savenije, M. L. Petrus, P. Docampo
Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 8, 1703057 (2018) [DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201703057]
University of Würzburg newspaper einBLICK interviewed Dr. Hannes Kraus about his recent Nano Letter paper, the Takasaki-Würzburg project on 3D-writing of spin defects in silicon carbide as well as on his future plans. More.
Congratulation to Dr. Georgy Astakhov, who was awarded with the Habilitation degree in Experimental Physics for his work “Intrinsic Defects in Silicon Carbide for Quantum Application” after giving the public lecture entitled „Perowskite: eine Struktur mit drei einzigartigen Eigenschaften“. Habilitation is the highest post-doctoral qualification level issued by German universities and is the key for access to a professorship.
Congratulation to our Silicon Carbide group! Two manuscripts were accepted for publication in high impact journals nearly at the same time, the one on „3D Proton Beam Writing of Optically Active Coherent Vacancy Spins in Silicon Carbide" by Hannes Kraus et al. in Nano Letters and the other one on „Locking of Electron Spin Coherence Above 20 ms in Natural Silicon Carbide“ by Dimitri Simin et al. in Phys. Rev. B. The latter paper has been selected by the editors of PRB to be an Editors’ Suggestion. Have a look at our list of publications.
Congratulations to Hannes Kraus, who has been awarded a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The NASA Postdoctoral Program is extremely selective, and this Fellowship is a recognition of his highly ranked academic and scientific achievement.
Germany’s international broadcaster Deutsche Welle posted a video on Organic Solar Cells taken in our EP6 labs. Watch the video.
Congratulations to our perovskite group, who published its recent findings related to various recombination mechanisms in the ACS and NPG journals. In particular, in the ACS Energy Letters they demonstrated how to reduce the shunt and surface recombination by employing polyarylamine as electron transport layer. This work was done in collaboration with our partners from the University of Valencia, Spain. In Scientific Reports they demonstrated how to improve charge carrier lifetime in planar perovskite solar cells by bromine doping. Have a look at our list of publications.
DFG and the Austrian FWF approved the bilateral proposal "Quantum Control of Spin Centers in Silicon Carbide with Microcavities" under D-A-CH Lead-Agency. The purpose of this project is to realize light matter interfaces based on optically active defects in SiC. Project partners are Dr. Georgy Astakhov, EPVI, Uni Würzburg and Dr. Michael Trupke from Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Vienna.
DFG and the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) approved the bilateral proposal "Polytype and isotope engineering of silicon carbide for quantum microwave amplifiers". The purpose of this project is to demonstrate quantum microwave amplification in SiC. Project partners are University of Würzburg and Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia. 14 Russian-German research proposals (of more than 120) will be funded under the framework of this first joint call.
Good news from Brussels! Horizon 2020 Project SEPOMO - Spins for Efficient Photovoltaic Devices based on Organic Molecules was selected for funding. The project objective is to clarify the role of electron spins of photo-generated species in the efficiency of organic solar cells. The EU Commission has granted ca. 4 Mio. Euro to pursue this research and training network in 6 European countries in the coming 4 years.
Congratulations! The proposal DIABASE “Highly sensitive diamond and carborundum nano-sensors and bio-markers with NIR optical addressability”, submitted under the ERA.Net RUS Plus initiative has been selected for funding. Project partners are: Würzburg / Germany (as Coordinator), Ulm and Stuttgart / Germany, Moscow and St. Petersburg / Russia, Vienna / Austria, Krakow / Poland, Tallin / Estonia,
Turku / Finland.
Congratulations to Katrin Anneser, ZAE Bayern and EP6. Her project "Development of an energy efficient solar energy storage system based on a printed solar cell and supercapacitor" will be funded by Deutsche Bundesumweltstiftung (DBU).
Our new publication on room-temperature single-emitters based on spin centers in SiC: The work entitled "Engineering near infrared single photon emitters with optically active spins in ultrapure silicon carbide" has been accepted for publication in Nature Communications. Have a look at the preprint at arXiv:1407.7065.
The German Research Council (DFG) established a new Research Training Group (GRK2112) Molecular Biradicals: Structure, Properties and Reactivity, in which EP6 is participating. See also the press release of the University of Würzburg (in German).